Pietra, Francesco
Restoring Histone Deacetylase Activity by Waste Product Release. A View from Molecular Mechanics Simulations with Mammalian HDAC8

HDAC8 is a Zn-II-based, single-peptide mammalian histone deacetylase that is localized mainly in the cytoskeleton of smooth muscle cells, thus regulating muscle contractility. HDACs are also widely involved in cellular processes, ranging from cell differentiation to proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis; in particular, protecting a telomerase activator from ubiquitin-mediated degradation. How HDACs can eliminate the hydrolytic reaction products, in order that the process of deacetylation of the acetyllysine moiety of histones can take place again, has long been debated in the scientific literature, without reaching any firm conclusion, however. This question is the subject of the present work, carried out along a theoretical line that is capable of describing the whole pathway followed by the acetate product (ACT). A model was built here on the crystal data for the Y306F-mutated HDAC8 complex with a diacetylated peptide of the p53-tumor-suppressor class. That was followed by manually hydrolyzing the acetylated moiety bound to Zn-II and discharging the monoacetylated peptide product (MAP). The latter was replaced by a H2O molecule bound to Zn-II, while ACT was left free in the reaction cage. This Zn-II cluster was DFT-parameterized for the ff99SB force field without any further bias. As the result of random-acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations, egress of ACT from the reaction cage toward the aqueous environment can follow three pathways. Two of them utilize the channel for peptide (or histone) uptake and are preferred, if ACT leaves the reaction center before MAP (or the deacetylated histone). The third pathway, developing along the internal channel, is available to ACT even if MAP is still in place.


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